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DocFlex Technology - Documentation - Element Iterator (details)

  1. Collecting Elements by Location Rules
  2. Generating Iteration Scope
  3. Filtering
  4. Sorting
  5. Grouping

1.  Collecting Elements by Location Rules

This is the most important method used in DocFlex to obtain elements from the DSM (Data Source Model). A collection of elements is produced from the context element, according to a set of special Element Location Rules. Location rules are made of Location Paths, which themselves are used also separately for different purposes.

Location Paths

Location Paths are the expressions similar to XPath, which are used in DocFlex templates to specify the search of elements or attributes.

Although eventually they are string, when you design a template in the Template Designer, the Location Paths are normally not needed to be entered directly. Rather, they are constructed using special dialogs or can be selected in the Location Path Chooser, as shown on this screenshot:

Each Location Path is interpreted against a certain selected element (context node), which normally is the generator context element. As the result of an interpretation, a set of elements (Element Location Paths) or attributes (Attribute Location Paths) is produced.
The structure of each Location Path used in DocFlex is the same as in XPath and looks as the following:
Step1 / Step2 / ... / StepN
where
Step1, ..., StepN-1
Element Location Steps
StepN
Element Location Step or Attribute Location Step

The Location Path is interpreted by consecutive interpretations of all Location Steps defined in it.

The interpretation of a Location Step consists of taking some initial set of DSM nodes (called step input set) and producing by it another set of DSM nodes (called step result set). How exactly it is done depends on the step's settings (see below). Those settings, in fact, specify how the step is interpreted against only one initial node. The entire result set is produced as a union of the result sets of the step interpretations against every node in the input set.

As a whole, the Location Path is interpreted as follows:

  1. The Step1 is interpreted against the Location Path's initial context node.
  2. Each StepN that follows is interpreted against the result set produced on the previous StepN-1.
  3. The result set of the last step becomes the result of the whole Location Path interpretation.
If during the interpretation of some step an empty set was produced, so will be the result of the whole Location Path.
Every Element Location Step has the following structure:
axis :: ETs [filter]
where
axis
Specifies the search axis that is a subset of DSM's nodes from which the step's result set is collected. Currently, DocFlex supports the following axes:

child
Includes children of the step's context node. This axis is used by default (i.e. when no axis:: prefix is specified in the location step).
self
Includes only the step's context node itself.
child-or-self
Includes the step's context node and all its children
descendant
Includes all descendants of the step's context node (i.e. its children, children of the children and so on).
descendant-or-self
Includes the step's context node and all its descendants.
attribute^
This axis, called link-axis, is an extension of the XPath standard introduced in DocFlex. It includes those elements of the Data Source Model (which is a real or virtual XML-document) whose ID references are the values of the specified context node attribute.

The attribute is the name of a certain context element's attribute (whose type should be either IDREF or IDREF[]).

Such a specification is interpreted in the following way.

When the context element contains an attribute with 'attribute' name, all values of that attribute are interpreted as the identifiers of some elements contained in the DSM. Each identifier is used to find a corresponding element, and, if found, that element is added to the step's result set.

Example:

elementReference^::ClassDoc
{ expr }
This axis, called formula-axis, is another extension of XPath introduced in DocFlex. In effect, it covers the functionally of all other axes and is probably the ultimate axis imaginable.

The elements included in that axis are produced by a FlexQuery expression specified between the curly brackets. The expression should return an enumeration of new elements, which it may produce from the step's context node (the element) passed to the expression as the generator context element (accessible via the contextElement property).

For example, the step:

child::Person
will do the same as the step:
{ findChildren("Person") }::Person
The real power of formula-axis is that you can program within the embedded expression any algorithms of collecting of elements (for instance, finding them using element maps). That profoundly transforms the capabilities of the entire search possible to organize using Location Paths!

Note: The expression specified in formula-axis should always return the Enumeration type. Otherwise, the generator will raise an error.

The returned enumeration should contain objects of GOMElement or DSMElement types (objects of other types will be ignored).

The null value returned by the expression will be interpreted as an empty enumeration.

ETs
Specifies one or several matching Element Types. Each element, to be included in the step's result set, should comply with at least one of the specified matching Element Types. The list of the matching Element Types can be defined as:
  • A single Element Type name.
  • The following expression: (ET1 | ET1 | ... | ETn), where each ETn is an Element Type name.
  • The asterisk wildcard (*), which will include all elements regardless of their type
filter
This is a boolean FlexQuery-expression which defines the subquery for the location step filter.

When specified, this subquery is executed for each element to be included in the step's result set. The element is included only when the subquery returns true.

The tested element is accessible within the subquery as the generator context element (via the contextElement property). The previous context element is restored again after the Location Path processing is finished.

Each Attribute Location Step has the following structure:
@attribute
where attribute is the name of the searched attribute. The Attribute Location Paths are normally used to collect values of the same attribute by a number of elements at once. The interpretation result of such a Location Path is a vector of all values of all attributes found.

Compound Location Paths

You may join several Location Paths using '|' separator into a single expression:
lpath1 | lpath2 | ... | lpathN
Such an expression is called Compound Location Path and interpreted by the successive interpretation of the Location Paths contained in it. The result is a union of the elements or attributes produced by each component Location Path.

Location Rules

Each Element Location Rule has the following structure:
Matching Element Types [matching condition] → Element Location Path
where
Matching Element Types
The list of Element Types to which this rule is applied. If the rule matches with any element type, the list can be replaced with the wildcard: *
matching condition
A boolean FlexQuery-expression that tests whether the rule should be interpreted against a given element. If the expression returns false the rule will be ignored. This is similar to the enabling condition of template components.

The tested element is accessible within the expression as the generator context element (via the contextElement property).

Element Location Path
The Element Location Path specifying the set of the elements produced by the rule
Location Rules are intended to be used not alone, but organized in vectors made of several Location Rules. A vector of Location Rules is interpreted against some initial (input) set of elements, which produces another (result) set of elements.

Exactly, it works as the following:

  1. An element from the input set is made the generator context element.
  2. All Location Rules from the vector are iterated. For each rule:
    • The context element is tested whether it complies with any of the Matching Element Types.
    • If matching condition specified, the context element must also comply with it (i.e. the condition subquery returns true).
    • If all matching tests are passed, the Element Location Path specified in the rule is interpreted against the context element. The new elements produced by it are added to the result set.
That everything is repeated for each element from the input set, so the complete result set is generated.

Example
Let's consider the data source that provides the basic information about a Java-project. It can be described with the following DTD:
<!ELEMENT field>
<!ELEMENT method>
<!ELEMENT class (field*,method*,class*)>
<!ELEMENT package (class*,package*)>
Here are the sample Element Location Rules defined for this data source:
  1. Collect all classes (including the inner classes) contained both in the context element and in all its descendants:
    * → descendant::class
  2. If the context element is a package collect all top-level classes contained both in it and in all its subpackages:
    package → child-or-self::package/child::class

Recursive Location Rules

From the description above you can see that the only way to specify searching of elements in arbitrary depth from a given context node is using one of the descendant-axes. At that, the search will involve all the element subtree attached to the context node.

However, in some situations it may be needed to limit the search to only some branches of the subtree. Constructing Element Location Paths using only descendant-axes may be not enough to achieve the necessary effect. Even more difficulties arise when the search in indefinite depth need to involve link- or formula-axes.

That problem was solved in DocFlex by introducing Recursive Location Rules.

Recursive Location Rules are the same normal Element Location Rules, but in addition marked with a special recursive flag . This affects how such rules are interpreted.

A vector of Element Location Rules that includes some recursive rules is interpreted in repeating steps. On each step, some new elements are produced, which are added to the result set. Those new elements become also the input for the next step and so on, until no new elements are produced.

Precisely, this works as the following:

Step 1:
All the rules (recursive and not) are interpreted against the context element received by the Element Iterator as described in the previous section. As the result, some new elements are produced and added to the collected set.
Step N+1:
For the new element found on the previous Step N, all location rules marked with the recursive flag are interpreted again with each element successively selected as the rule's context element. That produces more new elements, which are also added to the collected set.

Such steps are repeated until no new elements are found.

Note:
DocFlex distinguishes elements by their ID. Therefore, only those elements are considered the new ones whose IDs have not yet occured on the previous iterations. Such an approach helps to prevent the infinite looping when the processed elements contains cyclic references, however, it requires each element to have a unique ID.
Example

Let's consider a little more complicated version of the previous example. Now, the data source providing the information about a Java-project allows you to know a parent of each class (if any it has) and the interfaces the class directly implements.

The new DTD will be the following:

<!ELEMENT field>
<!ELEMENT method>
<!ELEMENT class (field*,method*,class*,interface*)>
<!ELEMENT interface (field*,method*)>
<!ELEMENT package (class*,interface*,package*)>

<!ATTLIST class extends IDREF>
<!ATTLIST interface extends IDREFS>
<!ATTLIST class implements IDREFS>

Let now our task is to collect all interfaces directly or indirectly implemented by a given class (this will include the interfaces directly implemented either by the class itself or by one of its ancestor classes and the interfaces that are the ancestors of those implemented directly). This can be done using the following set of Recursive Location Rules:

 class     → extends^::class
 class     → implements^::interface
 interface → extends^::interface

The rules should be interpreted with the interested class as the initial context element. The result set should be filtered for the elements of interface type.

2.  Generating Iteration Scope

Element Iterator provides four methods to specify the generation of the Element Iteration Scope (EIS) -- that is how the elements for iterations are collected:

Simple Location Rules

This is a simplified method, which allows you to quickly define a single Element Location Rule. It may be just enough for many purposes. There are only three settings to fill in:
Target Element Type(s)
Specify one or many element types (TargetETs), which the elements included in the generated EIS must comply with.
Include Descendants
Specifies if the search should include all descendants of the context element.
Include Self
Specifies if the context element itself can be included into the EIS (in the case its type is appropriate)
Assigning of those settings will result in the automatic building one of the following Element Location Rules:
* → child::TargetETs
* → descendant::TargetETs
* → child-or-self::TargetETs
* → descendant-or-self::TargetET

Advanced Location Rules

This is the most comprehensive method of defining Element Location Rules. It gives access to all features implemented in DocFlex. The generation of the EIS is specified with the following settings:
Target Element Type(s)
Specify one or many element types, which the elements included in the generated EIS must comply with.
Location Rules
The list of the Element Location Rules specifying how the EIS is generated

Defining a single Location Rule:

Defining a Location Step:

Sequence

An alternative method of the EIS generation not based on Element Location Rules. The EIS is produced as the sequence of the connected elements, according to the following settings:
Target Element Type(s)
Specify one or many element types, which the elements included in the generated EIS must comply with.
Expression for First Element
The FlexQuery-expression calculating the first element for the EIS. The calculation normally should be based on the context element received by the section and may involve other generator variables.
Expression for Subsequent Element
All other EIS elements (except the first one) are calculated by this FlexQuery-expression. At each step, if the previous element was not null it is made the context element. Then, the expression is processed and the next element is produced.

Custom

This method allows you to iterate by any sequence of elements produced by the specified FlexQuery expression. It is particularly useful when the necessary elements have been already collected and stored in an element map, as shown on the screenshot:
Target Element Type(s)
Specify one or many element types (TargetETs), which the elements included in the generated EIS must comply with.
Expression for Element Enumeration
A FlexQuery expression that should return an enumeration of elements, which may be produced from the iterator's context element passed to the expression as the generator context element (accessible via the contextElement property).

The expression should return the Enumeration type. The returned enumeration should contain objects of GOMElement or DSMElement types (objects of other types will be ignored).

The null value returned by the expression will be interpreted as empty enumeration.

Effectively, this method covers all the other methods above, since all possibilities to collect elements (including by Location Paths / Location Rules) are equally supported on the level of FlexQuery functions.

On the other hand, it is an equivalent of the usage of formula-axis in a single Location Rule: * → { expr }::TargetETs

3.  Filtering

Element Iterator provides two methods to filter the Element Iteration Scope (EIS): Both methods can be used simultaneously. However, since in general these operations are not commutative, the Filtering By Key is always done the first.

Filtering By Key

The idea of this filtering is the following. Each element is associated with a certain key produced from that element. The result (filtered) enumeration will contain only those elements, whose keys are unique. The elements from the original enumeration, whose keys are repeating, will be deleted.

Precisely, this type of filtering works as follows:

  1. All elements from the source enumeration are iterated.
  2. For each element, a key is generated by the FlexQuery specified in “Expression for Unique Key”. The element is associated with that key.
  3. Using a special hashmap, the key is checked if it has been already associated with some element on one of the previous iterations.
  4. If not, the element is added to the result enumeration.
  5. If yes and the “Preference Condition” specified, it is executed against the current element. If the condition returns true, the element previously associated with that key in the result enumeration is replaced with the current element. Otherwise, the current element is skipped over and the processing goes to the next element.
Expression for Unique Key
Specify a FlexQuery that will be execute for each initial element to generate the element's filtering key.

The element is passed to the query as the generator context element. The value returned by the query should be an object good to be a hash key. The null value is also allowed.

Note: When you need to filter elements by several keys with different types so that only the whole set of keys generated for each element must be unique, you can do it by creating a single compound filtering key using HashKey() function.

Preference Condition
Specify a boolean FlexQuery that calculates the “Preference Condition” for the element.

When specified, this query will be executed for each initial element whose key is repeating (that is, when there was an early processed element with the same key). The element is passed to the query as the generator context element.

If the query returns true, the old element will be replaced with the current element in the result enumeration.

If the preference condition is not specified or returns false, the current element with the repeating key will be filtered out (removed from the result enumeration).

Conversely, specifying in this field only "true" (which will be also a valid expression) will have an effect that for all initial elements associated with the same key only the last of them will appear in the result enumeration.

Filtering By Expression

This is what a normal filtering typically is. You specify a condition calculated for every initially collected element. Only those elements that comply with the condition are included in the result Element Iteration Scope (EIS).
Filter Expression
Specify a boolean FlexQuery that will be processed against each initial element. If the query returns true, the element is included in the result enumeration. Otherwise, it will be skipped over.

The tested element is passed to the query as the generator context element.

4.  Sorting

Sorting Modes

There are following options to specify sorting of the Element Iteration Scope (EIS):

none (original order)

No sorting. The EIS is remained in the original order (i.e. the one that is naturally formed when the elements are being inserted in the EIS).

reverse original order

Reverses the original order. This option may be particularly useful when the EIS is generated by Sequence method.

by element attribute

The elements of the EIS are sorted by the value of the specified attribute (according to its data type).

Additional settings:

  1. ordering: ascending/descending
  2. case sensitive (for character values only)

by element name

The elements of the EIS are sorted by their names (i.e. the names of their Element Types) in lexicographical order. This option makes sense when the EIS contains many elements of the different types.

Additional settings:

  1. ordering: ascending/descending
  2. case sensitive (for character values only)

by element value

The elements of the EIS are sorted by their values (regarding data types)

Additional settings:

  1. ordering: ascending/descending
  2. case sensitive (for character values only)

by location path

by key expression

by compound key

This is the most general method of sorting the EIS. It includes all previous methods and allows much more, though it might seem a little complicated. In this case, the elements of the EIS are sorted by an arbitrary compound key generated for each element.

Each compound key consists of a certain sequence of the subkeys:

subkey1; subkey2; ...; subkeyN

that is generated for each element before the sorting. The compound keys are compared by comparing consecutively their constituent subkeys in the order in which the subkeys follow.

Each subkey has its own method of calculation. This method also determines the subkey's data type, according to which the corresponding subkeys are compared.

The subkey calculation method can be specified as one of the following:

  1. by Location Path

    The value of the subkey is assigned from the value of an element or attribute retrieved by the specified Location Path. The Location Path is interpreted relatively to the EIS element for which the whole key is generated. The Location Path also determines the subkey's data type.

  2. by Formula

    The value of the subkey is calculated by the specified FlexQuery-expression, which also determines the subkey's data type. The expression should derive the subkey value from the EIS element for which the whole key is generated. For doing so, the element is temporarily made the generator's context element and in this way can be accessed from within the expression.

In addition to the calculation method, the comparison of the subkeys may be adjusted with following settings:

  1. subkey ordering: ascending/descending
  2. case sensitivity (for character subkeys only)

Sorting Condition

Sometimes it is needed to switch off any sorting specified in the Element Iterator and let elements follow in their original order, as they have been produced. (For instance, this can be requested via settings of some template parameters.)

This is controlled by the “Sorting Condition” -- a boolean FlexQuery. When specified, it is calculated each time before sorting starts. When the query returns false, no sorting is done.

5.  Grouping

Using “Expression for Grouping Key” setting of the Element Iterator, you can break the iterated elements into groups so that to iterate first by the groups, and then by the elements within each group.
When the grouping key expression is specified, it works as follows.

After the initial elements have been collected, filtered and sorted, the result sequence of elements is broken into groups according to the grouping keys generated for each element by the FlexQuery specified in the “Expression for Grouping Key” of the Element Iterator.

Each continuous subsequence of elements with equal grouping keys produces a group. As a result, the sequence of elements prepared for iterations is converted into a sequence of element groups. The ordering of elements in each group remains the same as in the initial sequence.

Since groups are not elements, the Element Iterator cannot iterate by them directly. So, it will iterate by the first elements taken from each group. However, at that, on each iteration step, the 'iterator.groupElements' property will be updated so as to provide the enumeration of all elements in the given group. This allows you to specify a nested iterator that will iterate by the elements in the group.

In the simplest case, the iteration scope of the nested Element Iterator should be specified as custom with the following Expression for Element Enumeration:

parentIterator.groupElements
(Other possibilities of using 'GOMIterator.groupElements' property are also possible.)

Notes:

  • The grouping keys slice the prepared sequence of elements into groups. But what groups are created is determined by the ordering of the elements in the initial sequence. So, grouping should be defined along with sorting!
  • During processing of a group, the 'GOMIterator.groupElements' property returns a new element enumeration (i.e. a new java.util.Enumeration object) each time it is accessed. But, the elements contained in the enumeration will be the same. This allows you to specify several nested sibling Element Iterators (within the same parent one) to iterate the elements of the same group in different ways.

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